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Scale / Level of measurement

Scale / Level of measurement: Level of measurement or scale of measure is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables.

There are four different types of scales.

  1. Nominal Scale.
  2. Ordinal Scale.
  3. Interval Scale.
  4. Ratio Scale.
Here, nominal scale and ordinal scale are Qualitative variable & interval scale and ratio scale are Quantitative scale.

Nominal Scale:
  • Can be divided into some categories.
  • Categories cannot be ranked or ordered. 
Ex:     Gender(Male, Female)
           Religion(Muslim, Hindu,....)
           Brand of PC (Hp, Dell,......)
           Political Affiliation (A,B,JP,......)
           Eye Color (Black, Brown, Blue,....)

Ordinal Scale:
  • Must be qualitative data.
  • Categories can be ranked or ordered.
Ex:     Size of shirt (S,M,L,X,XL,...)
           Socio Economic Condition (Rich, middle, Poor,.....)
           Educational attainment (primary, secondary, undergraduate,....)
           Severity of Cancer (1st Stage, 2nd Stage,......)

Interval Scale: 
  • Must be numerical data.
  • has no true zero.
Ex:     Temperature

Ratio Scale: 
  • Must be numerical data.
  • Has true zero.
  • Ratio is meaningful. 
Ex:      Income
           No. of children.

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